Tutkimuskatsaus – Sähkömagneettiset kentät (syksy 2021)
Ajoittain teemme tutkimuskatsauksia, jotka myös viranomaisille (esim. STUK) toimitamme. Seuraavassa näistä ensimmäinen, jossa tarkastelemme 10 merkittävää, heinä-syyskuussa 2021 ilmestynyttä, radiotaajuisen säteilyn vaikutuksia koskevaa tutkimuspaperia. Kunkin tutkimuspaperin lopussa on lyhyt suomenkielinen yhteenveto.
1) Cuicui Hu et al. Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Neurotransmitters in the Brain. Frontiers in Public Health. Review. 2021;9:1139. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.691880
Abstract: With the rapid development of electronic information in the past 30 years, technical achievements based on electromagnetism have been widely used in various fields pertaining to human production and life. Consequently,electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has become a substantial new pollution source in modern civilization. The biological effects of EMR have attracted considerable attention worldwide. The possible interaction of EMR with human organs, especially the brain, is currently where the most attention is focused. Many studies have shown that the nervous system is an important target organ system sensitive to EMR. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on the neurobiological effects of EMR, including the metabolism and transport of neurotransmitters. As messengers of synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters play critical roles in cognitive and emotional behavior. Here, the effects of EMR on the metabolism and receptors of neurotransmitters in the brain are summarized.
Conclusion: In summary, research on the synthesis, metabolism and transport of neurotransmitters in the brain by EMR is increasing gradually, but due to the diﬀerent parameters of EMR, experimental objects and conditions, the experimental results are not very consistent and comparative. Therefore, the eﬀects of EMR on the metabolism and transport of neurotransmitters have not been clariﬁed. Moreover, the role of neurotransmitters and their mechanism in the neurobehavioral dysfunction induced by EMR have not been revealed. Further detailed studies are needed. On the other hand, because of the complex diversity of neurotransmitters in the brain, the interaction, cotransmission and coregulation of neurotransmitters make it diﬃcult to distinguish the primary and secondary changes of each neurotransmitter. Furthermore, the interaction of diﬀerent neural nuclei in the brain constitutes sophisticated neural circuits, which is the fundamental basis of how the brain performs functions. Consequently, the regulation of neural circuits may be involved in the neurotransmitter disorder of the brain induced by EMR.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Radiotaajuinen säteily eri lähetinantenneista vaikuttaa haitallisesti keskushermoston luonnollisiin sähköpulsseihin ja hermoston synapsien neutrotransmittereihin. Tämän häiriön aikaansaamiseksi ei tarvita (merkittävää) kudoksen lämpenemistä.
2) Uloma Igara Uche, Olga V Naidenko. Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Environ Health. 2021 Jul 17;20(1):84. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34273995/
Background: Epidemiological studies and research on laboratory animals link radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with impacts on the heart, brain, and other organs. Data from the large-scale animal studies conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Ramazzini Institute support the need for updated health-based guidelines for general population RFR exposure.
Objectives: The development of RFR exposure limits expressed in whole-body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), a metric of RFR energy absorbed by biological tissues.
Methods: Using frequentist and Bayesian averaging modeling of non-neoplastic lesion incidence data from the NTP study, we calculated the benchmark doses (BMD) that elicited a 10% response above background (BMD10) and the lower confidence limits on the BMD at 10% extra risk (BMDL10). Incidence data for individual neoplasms and combined tumor incidence were modeled for 5% and 10% response above background.
Results: Cardiomyopathy and increased risk of neoplasms in male rats were the most sensitive health outcomes following RFR exposures at 900 MHz frequency with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulations. BMDL10 for all sites cardiomyopathy in male rats following 19 weeks of exposure, calculated with Bayesian model averaging, corresponded to 0.27-0.42 W/kg whole-body SAR for CDMA and 0.20-0.29 W/kg for GSM modulation. BMDL10 for right ventricle cardiomyopathy in female rats following 2 years of exposure corresponded to 2.7-5.16 W/kg whole-body SAR for CDMA and 1.91-2.18 W/kg for GSM modulation. For multi-site tumor modeling using the multistage cancer model with a 5% extra risk, BMDL5 in male rats corresponded to 0.31 W/kg for CDMA and 0.21 W/kg for GSM modulation.
Conclusion: BMDL10 range of 0.2-0.4 W/kg for all sites cardiomyopathy in male rats was selected as a point of departure. Applying two ten-fold safety factors for interspecies and intraspecies variability, we derived a whole-body SAR limit of 2 to 4 mW/kg, an exposure level that is 20-40-fold lower than the legally permissible level of 0.08 W/kg for whole-body SAR under the current U.S. regulations. Use of an additional ten-fold children’s health safety factor points to a whole-body SAR limit of 0.2-0.4 mW/kg for young children.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Kun otetaan huomioon National Toxicology (NTP) ja Ramazzini instituutin maailman suurimpien eläinkokeiden tulokset (mm. sydänten kasvaimia, clear evidence-luokitus), näiden pohjalta tutkijat laskevat, että radiotaajuisen säteilyn raja-arvoja ja sallittuja SAR-arvoja pitäisi alentaa murto-osaan, jotta ne turvaisivat lasten terveyden.
3) Isabel López et al. What is the radiation before 5G? A correlation study between measurements in situ and in real time and epidemiological indicators in Vallecas, Madrid. Environmental Research, 2021 Mar;194:110734. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33434609/
Background: Exposure of the general population to electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone base stations is one of the greater concerns of residents affected by the proximity of these structures due to the possible relationship between radiated levels and health indicators.
Objectives: This study aimed to find a possible relationship between some health indicators and electromagnetic radiation measurements.
Methods: A total of 268 surveys, own design, were completed by residents of a Madrid neighborhood surrounded by nine telephone antennas, and 105 measurements of electromagnetic radiation were taken with a spectrum analyzer and an isotropic antenna, in situ and in real – time, both outside and inside the houses.
Results: It was shown statistically significant p – values in headaches presence (p = 0.010), nightmares (p = 0.001), headache intensity (p < 0.001), dizziness frequency (p = 0.011), instability episodes frequency (p = 0.026), number of hours that one person sleeps per day (p < 0.001) and three of nine parameters studied from tiredness. Concerning cancer, there are 5.6% of cancer cases in the study population, a percentage 10 times higher than that of the total Spanish population.
Discussion: People who are exposed to higher radiation values present more severe headaches, dizziness and nightmares. Moreover, they sleep fewer hours.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Espanjan Madridissa todettiin että ihmisten päänsärky, huimaus, uni huononivat RF-säteilystä ja syöpää esiintyi 10 kertaa enemmän kuin Espanjan muussa väestöstä paikoissa, joissa myös radiotaajuisen säteilyn tasot olivat erityisen korkeat matkapuhelintukiasemista. Tutkimus oli tehty ennen 5G:n asennuksia.
4) Lennart Hardell et al. Aspects on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2020 Guidelines on Radiofrequency Radiation (Commentary). J Cancer Sci Clin Ther 2021; 5 (2): 250-285. https://www.fortunejournals.com/articles/aspects-on-the-international-commission-on-nonionizing-radiation-protection-icnirp-2020-guidelines-on-radiofrequency-radiation.pdf
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) published 2020 updated guidelines on radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz. Harmful effects on human health and the environment at levels below the guidelines are downplayed although evidence is steadily increasing. Only thermal (heating) effects are acknowledged and therefore form the basis for the guidelines. Despite the increasing scientific evidence of non-thermal effects, the new ICNIRP guidelines are not lower compared with the previous levels. Expert groups from the WHO, the EU Commission and Sweden are to a large extent made up of members from ICNIRP, with no representative from the many scientists who are critical of the ICNIRP standpoint.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: WHO:n, EU:n komission ja Ruotsin asiantuntijaryhmät koostuvat suurelta osin ICNIRP:n jäsenistä, eikä niissä ole edustajia niistä monista tutkijoista, jotka suhtautuvat kriittisesti ICNIRP:n kantaan. Jo tästä syystä aitoa tieteellistä diskurssia ei synny ja raja-arvodokumenteissa ei huomioida olleenkaan kaikkia vaikutusmekanismeja esimerkiksi syövän taustalla.
5) Dominique Belpomme et al. The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147321
Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called “provocation tests”, which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Belpomme ja yli 30 tunnettua tutkijaa todistavat että on otettava huomioon kaikki biologiset markkerit (biomarkers) molekyylitasolla huomioon kun diagnostisoidaan ihmisiä, jotka ovat herkistyneet elektromagneettiselle säteilylle. Konsensusraportti vaatii, että EHS tunnustetaan erilliseksi neuropatologiseksi sairaudeksi ja että se sisällytetään WHO:n kansainväliseen tautiluokitukseen.
6) Panagopoulos et al. (2021). Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 59(5), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5272
Human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell’s electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Kirjottajat tuovat lisätietoa kirjallisuuskatsauksessaan radiotaajuisen säteilyn aiheuttamista DNA-vaurioista. Keskeistä vaurioiden aikaansaamisessa on solujen ionikanavien toiminnan häiriintyminen, johon vaikuttaa erityisesti signaalin pulssimaisuus(sis. matalataajuiset ELF-komponentit). Artikkelissa käydään läpi biofysikaalisten prosessien lisäksi myös biokemialliset soluja vaurioittavat prosessit.
7) Daniela Lupi et al. Combined Effects of Pesticides and Electromagnetic-Fields on Honeybees: Multi-Stress Exposure. Insects 2021, 12(8), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080716
Multi-stress conditions are considered the most putative cause of honeybee decline. The ongoing reduction of domestic and natural pollinators is considered a very severe signal of the current loss of biodiversity, and it requires a broad research effort to clarify the causes. In this research, the combined effects of two possible stress sources for bees, pesticides and electromagnetic fields (multi-stress conditions) were analyzed by a field trial. After one year of monitoring, a complex picture of several induced effects was present, especially in the multi-stress site, such as disease appearance (American foulbrood), higher mortality in the underbaskets (common to pesticide-stress site), behavioral alterations (queen changes, excess of both drone-brood deposition and honey storage) and biochemical anomalies (higher ALP activity at the end of the season). The multi-stress site showed the worst health condition of the bee colonies, with only one alive at the end of the experimentation out of the four ones present at the beginning.
Abstract: Honeybee and general pollinator decline is extensively reported in many countries, adding new concern to the general biodiversity loss. Many studies were addressed to assess the causes of pollinator decline, concluding that in most cases multi-stress effects were the most probable ones. In this research, the combined effects of two possible stress sources for bees, pesticides and electromagnetic fields (multi-stress conditions), were analyzed in the field. Three experimental sites were chosen: a control one far from direct anthropogenic stress sources, a pesticide-stress site and multi-stress one, adding to the same exposure to pesticides the presence of an electromagnetic field, coming from a high-voltage electric line. Experimental apiaries were monitored weekly for one year (from April 2017 to April 2018) by means of colony survival, queen activity, storage and brood amount, parasites and pathogens, and several biomarkers in young workers and pupae. Both exposure and effect biomarkers were analysed: among the first, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); and among the last, DNA fragmentation (DNAFRAGM) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that bee health conditions were the worst in the multi-stress site with only one colony alive out of the four ones present at the beginning. In this site, a complex picture of adverse effects was observed, such as disease appearance (American foulbrood), higher mortality in the underbaskets (common to pesticide-stress site), behavioral alterations (queen changes, excess of honey storage) and biochemical anomalies (higher ALP activity at the end of the season). The overall results clearly indicate that the multi-stress conditions were able to induce biochemical, physiological and behavioral alterations which severely threatened bee colony survival.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Kokonaistulokset osoittavat selvästi, että moninkertaiset stressiolosuhteet (sisältäen radiotaajuisen säteilyn) pystyivät aiheuttamaan biokemiallisia, fysiologisia ja käyttäytymismuutoksia, jotka uhkasivat vakavasti mehiläisyhdyskuntien selviytymistä.
8) Mary Zosangzuali et al.: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from a mobile phone base station on the redox homeostasis in different organs of Swiss albino mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2021 Jul 3;40(3):393–407. https://doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2021.1895207
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) emits 1800-MHz RF-EMR on some oxidative stress parameters in the brain, heart, kidney and liver of Swiss albino mice under exposures below thermal levels. Mice were randomly assigned to three experimental groups which were exposed to RF-EMR for 6 hr/day, 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day for 45 consecutive days, respectively, and a control group. The glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in mice brain after exposure to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day. Exposure of mice to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day also led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) levels in mice brain. On the contrary, exposures used in this study did not induce any significant change in various oxidative stress-related parameters in the heart, kidney and liver of mice. Our findings showed no significant variations in the activities of aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and on the level of creatinine (CRE) in the exposed mice. This study also revealed a decrease in RBC count with an increase in WBC count in mice subjected to 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day exposures. Exposure to RF-EMR from MPBS may cause adverse effects in mice brain by inducing oxidative stress arising from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by enhanced lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels and activities of antioxidants.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Altistuminen mobiiliteknologioiden tuottamalle radiotaajuiselle säteilylle (tässä 1800 MHz) voi aiheuttaa haitallisia vaikutuksia hiirten aivoissa hapettumisstressin kautta.
9) Ilham Said-Salman et al. Effects of Wi-Fi Radiofrequency Radiation on Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: BioElectroMagnetics. (Volume 42, Issue7, October 2021, Pages 575-582) Published Online: 01 August 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22364
Abstract: The hazardous consequences of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure represent a public health concern. Common sources of EMF include smartphones and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of our study is to assess whether exposure to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation influences the pathogenic traits of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). In this study, K. pneumoniae showed a non-linear response to treatments with Colistin and Gentamycin following different Wi-Fi exposure periods. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane within 24 h of Wi-Fi exposure. Crystal violet quantification and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the ability to form biofilms was greater in Wi-Fi exposed K. pnemoniae when compared to control. Moreover, higher levels of bcsA, mrkA, and luxS messenger RNAs were observed. Our data suggest that Wi-Fi exposure can influence bacteria in a stressful way, leading to an alteration in their antibiotic susceptibility, morphological changes, and cumulative biofilm formation.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Tutkimuksen mukaan WLAN-kuormitus voi vaikuttaa bakteereihin stressaavalla tavalla, mikä johtaa niiden antibioottiherkkyyden muuttumiseen. Tällä on erittäin haitallisia vaikutuksia mm. sairaaloissa.
10 ) Hiie Hinrikus et al. Threshold of radiofrequency electromagnetic field effect on human brain. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2021 Aug 17;Ahead of Print:1–11. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34402382/
Purpose: This review aims to estimate the threshold of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) effects on human brain based on analyses of published research results. To clarify the threshold of the RF EMF effects, two approaches have been applied: (1) the analyses of restrictions in sensitivity for different steps of the physical model of low-level RF EMF mechanism and (2) the analyses of experimental data to clarify the dependence of the RF EMF effect on exposure level based on the results of published original neurophysiological and behavioral human studies for 15 years 2007–2021.
Conclusions: The analyses of the physical model of nonthermal mechanisms of RF EMF effect leads to conclusion that no principal threshold of the effect can be determined. According to the review of experimental data, the rate of detected RF EMF effects is 76.7% in resting EEG studies, 41.7% in sleep EEG and 38.5% in behavioral studies. The changes in EEG probably appear earlier than alterations in behavior become evident. The lowest level of RF EMF at which the effect in EEG was detected is 2.45 V/m (SAR = 0.003 W/kg). There is a preliminary indication that the dependence of the effect on the level of exposure follows rather field strength than SAR alterations. However, no sufficient data are available for clarifying linearity-nonlinearity of the dependence of effect on the level of RF EMF. The finding that only part of people are sensitive to RF EMF exposure can be related to immunity to radiation or hypersensitivity. The changes in EEG caused by RF EMF appeared similar in the majority of analyzed studies and similar to these in depression. The possible causal relationship between RF EMF effect and depression among young people is highly important problem.
Lyhyesti suomeksi: Katsausartikkelissa huomattiin, että erityisesti pulssimainen radioataajuinen säteily pystyi vaikuttamaan EEG:hen 1/1000- tasoilla siitä mitä Suomen ICNIRP-raja-arvot sallivat ihmisiä säteilyttää. EEG-aivokäyrien muutos oli samantyyppistä kuin mitä diagnosoidaan masennukseen liittyen.